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医学英语Day1

医路有你医路同行2019-02-10 16:58:12


 

词根 词缀 

         Prefix & Suffix



anti- 相反,反对,抵抗

antioxidant n. 抗氧化剂

antibody n. 抗体

antiallergic a.抗变应性的,抗过敏的

 

homeo-,homo- 相同的

homeostasis n. 稳态,内稳态

homeotherapy n.同种疗法,顺式疗法

homogeneity n. 同种,同质

homosexual a. 同性恋的

 

-gen 原

antigen  n. 抗原

glycogen n. 糖原

gathogen n. 病原体

collagen n. 胶原质



  -sclerosis 硬化

atherosclerosis n. 动脉粥样硬化

arteriosclerosis n. 动脉硬化

cardiosclerosis n. 心硬化

osteosclerosis n. 骨硬化,骨质过密

  meta- 变化,变形

metabolism n. 新陈代谢

metamorphosis n. 变态(昆虫发育过程的变态)

metastasis n. (肿瘤)转移







翻译 Translation



红色:主语中心词

蓝色:谓语部分或系表成分

绿色:宾语中心词




1. These changes in the collagen of arterial walls are as much responsible for their loss of extensibility as are the depositsassociated with atherosclerosis, the deposition of fatty materials in arterial walls.


主语:动脉壁胶原蛋白的改变


 谓语+宾语:造成了动脉血管壁延展性(弹性)的缺失

As...as...:。。。。。。和。。。。。。一样                    

loss of ...和deposits 一样

字面意思翻译为:和造成动脉粥样硬化有关的沉积物同样机理,这沉积物就是动脉壁脂类物质的蓄积。


根据汉语习惯和达到语意通顺的目的稍加修饰加工,

按照正常主谓宾顺序连成一句就是:

动脉壁中胶原蛋白的改变(其实就是减少或者变性)造成了动脉血管壁延展性的缺失,正如有关沉积物造成动脉粥样硬化,这个沉积物其实也就是动脉壁上脂类物质的蓄积。


2.  These observations providstrong evidence for the hypothesis that cessation of mitosis is a normal , genetically programmed event.


hypothhesis 后that从句为其同位语。

这些观测结果为有丝分裂的中止是一项正常的由基因调控的事件这一假设提供了强有力的证据。






拓展阅读  

                    Further Reading



这是从Quora网站上找的关于Elon Musk 对衰老的看法。

Quora其实就是一个歪果仁的知乎啦,感兴趣想多阅读英文的小伙伴可以常去Quora逛一逛哦。

I talked to him for a while about genetic reprogramming. He doesnt buy the efficacy of typical anti-aging technology efforts, because he believes humans have general expiration dates, and no one fix can help that. He explained: The whole system is collapsing. You dont see someone whos 90 years old and its like, they can run super fast but their eyesight is bad. The whole system is shutting down. In order to change that in a serious way, you need to reprogram the genetics or replace every cell in the body.” Now with anyone elseliterally anyone elseI would shrug and agree, since he made a good point. But this was Elon Musk, and Elon Musk fixes shit for humanity. So what did I do?


Me: Wellbut isnt this important enough to try? Is this something youd ever turn your attention to?

Elon: The thing is that all the geneticists have agreed not to reprogram human DNA. So you have to fight not a technical battle but a moral battle.Elon Musk's view on reprogramming the genetics of every cell in the body is well-rooted in Jan Vijg's book "Aging in the Genome". Ultimately, Jan Vijg argues that the adverse effects associated with genetic drift may ultimately be the limiting factor to human lifespan, as mutations that lead to "genetic mosaicism" from cell to cell ultimately result in increased stochasticity in gene expression that cannot be targeted in the way that, say, distinct patterns of protein damage can be targeted. This view is quoted below:Unlike cancer, aging is not a clonal phenomenon, but reects a divergence from a common differentiated lineage towards a mosaic of cells, differing from each other in the frequency and location of the scars of aging. The assumption of SENS is that the types of damage are very similar in all cells of a given tissue and can be specically targetedIf a signicant part of the adverse effects associated with aging is the consequence of random alterations in the information content of the genome, corrective intervention would be impossible, or at the very least subject to enormous complications. In contrast to chemical or cellular damage, which share the basic features suitable for therapeutic targeting, random genome alteration creates (epi)genetically different cells, a situation that cannot be easily reversed. In the absence of turnover from an immutable template, altered genomes can also not be liquidated as in protein repair. Hence, every individual cell would now be genetically different and would need individual treatment’ to correct its mutation load. In principle, such correction would be very similar to current attempts at gene therapy: through the use of vectors transferring the correct piece of DNA sequence into the sick cell to replace the mutated fragment. Editing genes to correct defects has made great strides, but it is unlikely that we will ever be able to correct the collection of random mutations in our genome that result from natural wear and tear. Indeed, it is entirely reasonable to assume that stochastic alterations in the information content of the genome are essentially irreversible. If this proves to be the main underlying cause of aging SENS would have a problem because its strategy ignores the need to correct genomic errors as a potential source of cellular malfunction.Ultimately, Elon Musk doesn't seem to want to live forever. See Why Elon Musk doesn't want to live forever.



加油,加油

这简直是piece of cake,相信自己,你可以完成的。




以上内容,均为个人整理,翻译也是个人理解,有问题可以在后台回复哦

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