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外语控学习攻略:如何在90天内学会一门语言?

悦习英语2018-12-07 16:20:06

英语学习攻略


小编语:学会一门外语、拥有双语能力会为你展开一个全新的世界:不同的人,不同的文化,不同的情感。



Learning a second language has many cognitive benefits. For example, learning a new language has been shown to delay Alzheimer’s, boost brainpower, reduce cognitive biases, and even increase concentration and the ability to tune out distractions. Your ability to build better habits will improve by learning a new language.

从认知的角度来说,学一门第二外语有很多益处。比方说,有研究显示学习一门新语言可以延缓老年痴呆症,可以提高大脑能力,可以减少认知偏差,甚至还可以增强注意力避免分心。学会一门新语言,可以培养很多好习惯。



But, more so than cognitive effects, the ability to speak a second language has a ton of social benefits. There’s bliss in having the ability to order food in the waiter’s native language, to eavesdrop on people in an elevator, to impress natives by speaking with and understanding them.

不过学一门新语言的好处可不仅仅是认知效果。学会一门第二语言还有很多的社会效益。在国外的餐厅你可以使用服务员的母语点餐,你可以偷听电梯里人们的外语交谈。和当地人交流时,你会说他们的语言能听懂他们的意思,也会给他们留下深刻的印象。这些想想是不是就觉得很开心?



The coolest thing about learning your second language is that it makes learning a third, fourth, or fifth language much easier. The challenge isn’t in learning a new language, but rather learning how to learn a language. Once you know the techniques, you’ll be able to apply the same grammatical patterns and language techniques in every new language you learn.

我觉得学第二语言最酷的事情是:学会了它会让你学第三、第四甚至第五语言的过程更容易。你所面临的挑战不是学会一门新语言,而是学会如何学语言。一旦你掌握了技巧,你就可以把同样的语法模式和语言技巧应用到你想学的任何一种新语言上。



Why most people are wrong about language learning

大部分人对语言学习的误区



I studied spanish for several years in high school, and even got good grades on national exams. But one day, when I actually tried to speak the language, I suddenly realized. Four years of studying Spanish in school, and I couldn’t even order a burrito.

我在高中的时候学过几年的西班牙语,还在全国性的考试中拿到了挺高的分数,但有一天,当我想说西班牙语的时候,我突然意识到:在学校学了四年西班牙语的我,连点份玉米煎饼都不会。



So what went wrong? According to official standardized tests, I was an expert in Spanish. But I couldn’t even do the most basic of tasks!

到底哪里出问题了?根据官方标准测试的结果,我可是西班牙语的专家呀!但我却无法用西班牙语来进行最基本的交流。



The fact is that we not taught languages in the ideal way. Students study languages in huge groups and think that a few worksheets and grammar exercises will be enough to learn a language. Yet almost no one actually learns to speak.

事实是在学校老师教我们语言的方式并不是理想的学习方法。大部分的学生都是在班级里一大群人一起学语言,我们以为做一些语法练习题,就够我们学会一门语言。其实我们基本没有学习如何去说这门语言。



In actuality, by doing worksheets, we are practicing for just that—for worksheets. But if you want to learn to speak, well, you actually have to practice by speaking.

实际上,做练习题的方法,只是让我们完成练习。但如果你想要学会开口说,你其实需要通过讲话的方式来练习。



So when people try to learn to speak a language out of a book, I try to show them that they won’t achieve their goals that way. If you want to speak, you have to practice speaking. And if you want to speak a language rapidly, well, you have to start speaking. A lot.

所以每次我遇到想通过一本书学会一门语言的人,我通常都会告诉他们:这种方法无法让他们实现语言学习的目标。如果你想要说,你就要通过口语练习。如果你想让自己说得非常流利,那你就要开始做大量的口语练习。



The Basic Strategy Of Rapid Language Learning

快速语言学习的基本策略



Learning a language can seem daunting, so I’m going to provide an overview of the general strategy, before we get into the specifics.

学习一门语言似乎让人畏惧,所以我们先来看看基本策略,然后再详细说明。



1. Get the right resources for learning: A grammar book, memorization software, and films/books.

找到学习的正确资源:一本语法书,一个记忆软件,若干电影或书籍



2. Get a private tutor. You want one for at least a month. I recommend four hours/day.

请一位私人教师。你至少需要私人教师陪练一个月时间,我建议每天四小时。



3. Attempt to speak and think only in the new language. Every time you can’t remember a word, put that word into your memorization software. Practice your vocabulary daily.

试着只用这门新的语言说话和思考。每当你想不起一个单词的时候,把那个词输入你的记忆软件。每天进行词汇练习。



4. Find friends, language partners, and other speakers of the language. Once you can have basic conversations with your private tutor, you need to find other partners. If you haven’t already, think about moving to the country where the language is spoken. Consider a group class. Practice continuously.

寻找朋友、语言学习搭档或者其他说这门语言的人。一旦你可以和私人教师进行基本会话,你就需要寻找其他的搭档。如果你还没有准备好,考虑一下搬去说那门语言的国家。也可以参加集体授课班级。要不停地练习。



That’s the basic strategy. Again, this strategy is intensive, because learning a language in three months is a difficult task. If you’d prefer to learn the language more slowly or you don’t have the ability to move to a new country and practice 4-8 hours a day, then you can modify the plan. It is extremely important that you practice every day, however—20 minutes a day is much better than once or twice a week.

这就是基本策略。这些策略执行起来非常有强度,因为在三个月内学会一门语言并非易事。如果你想要慢点学或者你没法搬去另一个国家,或者你不能保证每天学习4-8小时,你也可以调整计划。最重要的是你要每天练习,每天20分钟总比一周才练一两次要好。



The Resources You Need To Learn A Language

学习一门语言需要的资源



A good grammar book. This is essential if you want to learn a language.

一本好的语法书。如果你想要学习一门语言,这是必备的。



A phrase book. This is similar to a dictionary, but for phrases. You can start memorizing full sentences and phrases, and you’ll naturally learn the individual words.

一本短语手册。这和字典类似,但是内容是关于短语的。你可以从记忆完整的句子和短语开始,之后自然会学会单独的词语。



An online dictionary. For most romance langauges, I recommend http://wordreference.com. Google Translate can be useful, but it easily becomes a crutch. Use it sparingly.

一本在线字典。对于大部分由拉丁语演变而成的语言,我推荐wordreference网站。谷歌翻译可以很有用,但也容易产生依赖性,要适度使用。



A memorization app. You have to memorize vocabulary. I always put new words in my app, and practice them every night.

一款记忆应用程序。你必须要记单词。我总是把新单词输入记忆程序,然后每晚练习。


The 90 Day Plan to Learning a Language

学会一门语言的90天计划



It’s possible to achieve fluency, or at least a high speaking level, in just 90 days, but it requires intense focus.

在90天内达到流利、至少是较高的口语标准是可能的,但是要求高度集中的练习。



If you don’t have the freedom to focus fulltime on learning a language, that’s okay, but the process will take longer than 90 days. Just make sure that you continue to practice every day, or else you’ll lose your knowledge rapidly.

如果你可以自由支配的时间还不允许你完全专注于学习一门语言,也没关系,但学习过程会长于90天。你只需要保证每天都持续练习,否则你会很快忘记你所学的内容。



Days 1-30

第1-30天



The first thirty days are critical to learning a new language. You need to immerse yourself as fully as possible.

最初的30天对于学习一门新的语言非常关键。你需要尽可能地完全投入到学习中去。



I highly recommend moving to a country where the language is spoken if you want to learn a language in 90 days. This will help you get into the language learning mindset, and will allow you to surround yourself with the new language. If you are able to move to a new country, try to live with a host family. You’ll learn a lot by eating meals with a family that hosts you.

如果你想在90天内学会一门语言,我强烈建议你搬去说那个语言的国家。这会有助于你进入语言学习的状态,让你被这门新的语言所包围。如果你能搬去一个新的国家,试着住进一个寄宿家庭。你和这家人一起吃饭时就可以学到很多。



In any case, during the first month, work one on one with a private tutor—not group classes. Group classes allow you to sit back and be lazy, while a private tutor forces you to learn.

无论如何,在第一个月,和私人教师一起一步步学习,不要去集体课堂。集体课堂会让你坐在后排偷懒,而私人教师会强迫你学习。



This is important: you must be an active learner. Most people allow themselves to be taught to, but you have to take an active role in asking questions.

还有一点很重要:你必须做一个积极的学习者。大多数人在被动接受,而你必须提出问题,扮演主动的角色。



You’re going to start encountering a lot of words and phrases that you don’t know, both with your private tutor, and when you practice languages on your own. Enter these words in your memorization software.

在和私人教师学习或者自己练习的时候,你都会开始遇到很多不认识的单词和词组。把这些词汇输入你的记忆软件。



You want to start memorizing 30 words and phrases per day. Why 30? Because in 90 days, you’ll have learned 80% of the language.

你可以开始尝试每天记忆30个单词和词组。为什么是30个呢?因为在90天内,你将会掌握这门语言的80%。



As you can see, you need to learn around 3000 to hit 80% of the words … probably enough before you can start learning words easily by context. At 30 words/day, you’ll have learned almost 3000 in 90 days.

想要学会一门语言,你需要学习大约3000个单词来掌握80%的词汇,这应该已经足够让你可以根据上下文就容易地猜出词义了。保持每天30个词的速度,90天内你差不多可以记住3000个词。



Days 31-60

第31-60天



After your first month, it’s time to focus on exposing yourself to the language as much as possible. After a month of private tutoring, you’ll have the ability to have basic conversations.

第一个月结束后,应该尽可能地让自己专注于使用这门语言。一个月的私人教学后,你应该具备进行基础会话的能力。



If your private tutor is getting expensive, you might consider doing advanced group classes at this point—it’ll save you money and give you access to other friends who are learning the language. Just be careful of speaking only in English. Try to make it a rule to speak in the new language as much as possible. Continue with your private tutor, if possible.

如果请私人教师的费用太高,你也许可以考虑参加高级教学班。这可以帮你省钱,也让你有机会认识和你一样在学习这门语言的人。不过要注意,不要只用母语沟通。试着定一条规矩,尽可能地只用这门新的语言说话。如果可能的话继续聘请私人教师。



Now is the time to start finding language partners. Attempt to spend a few hours everyday practicing your language. At this point, because you have a basic grasp of the language, it shouldn’t be a chore—you are basically spending time socializing with new friends.

此时可以开始找语言学习搭档了。试着每天花几个小时练习这门语言。因为你已经掌握了这门语言的基础,应该不会觉得太困难,你可以花一些时间和新朋友进行基本的社交。



Try reading simple books in your target language and underlining words that you don’t know. You can add these to your memorization app.

试着读一些用该门语言写成的简单的书,把不懂的词划出来,然后添加到你的记忆应用程序里去。



You should start trying to think in the new language. Every time you try to express a thought to yourself, but can’t remember the word, write it down in your memorization software. Continue learning 30 words and phrases per day.

你应该试着开始用这门新的语言进行思考。每当你试着自我表达一种想法,却不记得某个单词时,把这个词添加到记忆软件里。继续保持每天学习30个单词和词组。



Days 61-90

第61-90天



By day 60, you should be in a good position to speak the language. You just simply need to keep practicing. Have deeper conversations with your language partners. Try to go out with them as much as possible—I’ve even found that a moderate amount of alcohol helps significantly with language practice.

到了第60天,你的口语应该不错了。你只是需要保持练习。和你的搭档进行一些更深入的对话。尽可能多和他们外出,我甚至发现适量饮酒对语言练习有明显的帮助。



Continue studying 30 words a day and practicing the ones you’ve already learned, and you’ll be approaching the 3000 word mark—enough to speak a language close to fluently.

继续每天学习30个单词,练习那些你已经学过的,你已经接近3000大关,这已经足够让你近乎流利地用这门语言说话了。



By now, you can start watching TV and reading books in your target language. Rent some DVDs in the foreign language and try to follow along. If you need to, turn on the subtitles. Don’t worry if you have trouble, because understanding film is a lot more difficult than having a one-on-one conversation.

现在你可以开始用这门语言看电视和读书。借一些外语的DVD试着跟上它的节奏。如果需要,可以打开字幕。如果理解有困难也别灰心,因为看懂一部电影比面对面的对话要难多了。



Keep on working on the language for several hours per day, and by the end of the month, you’ll find that you have a good grasp on the language. It’s pretty amazing what you can do in just 90 days with intense focus.

保持每天花几个小时使用这门语言,到这个月底,你会发现已经很好地掌握了它。保持高度集中,你可以在短短90天内做到如此不可思议的事情。



Conclusion

总结



Congratulations! You’ve done it–you’ve learned a language in just 90 days. The best part is that you’ll find it much faster to learn your next language. You’ve done the hard part–learning how to learn a language.

恭喜你!你做到了!你在短短90天内学会了一门语言。最棒的是你会发现学习下一门语言时会更快。你已经完成了最难的部分,那就是学会如何学习一门语言。



You’ve unlocked a new skill. Language learning is about building a new habit—the habit of thinking and speaking in a new language. And once you perfect a single language, you’ve laid the foundation for doing even more.

你已经掌握了一门新的技术。语言学习就是建立一种新的习惯,一种用一门新的语言思考和说话的习惯。一旦你完美掌握了一门语言,你已经为学习更多的语言打下了基础。



Imagine, the next time you meet a waiter or tourist from Italy or Mexico or Greece, you could start talking, tell a joke, and—if you can remember the punchline in time—get to experience the elation of making someone laugh in their own language.

想象一下,下次当你遇见一个来自意大利或者墨西哥或者希腊的服务生或者游客,你可以和他聊天,讲笑话(如果你能及时想得起那个笑料的话),然后体会一下用别人的母语逗他们大笑的那种得意劲吧。